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       Facts About Angola: Angolan Travel Services Factbook

Background: Angola is slowly rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold legislative elections in 2006.
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Coastline: 1,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use: arable land: 2.41%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 97.35% (2001)
Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Geography - note: the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population: 11,190,786 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.4% (male 2,454,209/female 2,407,083)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 3,059,339/female 2,955,060)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 139,961/female 175,134) (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 38.43 years
male: 37.28 years
female: 39.64 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.27 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 21,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2004)
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.8%
male: 82.1%
female: 53.8% (2001 est.)
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
Government type: republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Capital: Luanda
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been approved
Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Economy - overview: Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, but record oil prices and rising petroleum production have occurred without improved performance in other parts of the economy. Oil production and its supporting activities, contribute about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports, and much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 22 year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace has been established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population, but much of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects are scheduled for completion by 2006. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation, a policy that was more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings, and has significantly reduced inflation. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 18% in 2005, but the stabilization policy places pressure on international net liquidity. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. The government has made sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF, such as promoting greater transparency in government spending, and continues to be without a formal monitoring agreement with the institution. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004 and 14% growth in 2005.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $27.66 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $24.13 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 14.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%
industry: 67%
services: 25% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 5.58 million (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 30.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $8.5 billion
expenditures: $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (2005 est.)
Public debt: 40.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles, ship repair
Electricity - production: 1.916 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36.4%
hydro: 63.6%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 1.782 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production: 1.6 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption: 46,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - proved reserves: 25 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production: 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 79.57 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance: $4.484 billion (2005 est.)
Exports: $26.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - partners: US 37.7%, China 35.6%, Taiwan 6.7%, France 6.4% (2004)
Imports: $8.165 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - partners: South Korea 28.3%, Portugal 13.1%, US 9.3%, South Africa 7.4%, Brazil 5.6%, Japan 4.8%, France 4.4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.425 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external: $9.879 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $383.5 million (1999)
Currency (code): kwanza (AOA)
Currency code: AOA
Airports: 243 (2004 est.)
Pipelines: gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)
Railways: total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2004)
Roadways: total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways: 1,300 km (2004)
Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 4 (2005)
Ports and terminals: Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo